Internal Combustion Engines Play A Dominant Role in Personal Mobility and Transportation

Date: 2015-08-17

Internal combustion engines play a dominant role in personal mobility and transportation. Even a slight improvement will translate into considerable reductions in pollutant emissions and impact on the environment. The two major types of internal combustion engines are the gasoline and diesel. The former relies on an ignition source (spark plug) to start combustion, the latter depends on compression. The spark ignited gasoline engine has a widespread use and has been subject to continuous, sophisticated improvements. The most important contribution for lower fuel consumption lies in the spark ignition engine sector, owing to the outstanding thermodynamic potential which the direct fuel injection provides. Laser ignition, or laser-induced ignition, is the process of starting combustion by the stimulus of a laser light source. A laser based ignition source, i.e. replacing the spark plug by the focused beam of a pulsed laser, has been envisaged for some time. The time scale of a laser-induced spark is by several orders of magnitude smaller than the time scales of turbulence and chemical kinetics. In, the importance of the spark time scale on the flame kernel size and NOx production is identified. Laser ignition, microwave ignition, high frequency ignition are among the concepts widely investigated for future applications.

The protection of the resources and the reduction of the CO2 emissions with the aim to limit the greenhouse effect require a lowering of the fuel consumption of motor vehicles. Great importance for the reduction lies upon the driving source. 

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